That's the bad news. The good news is that bullying is preventable, and you can bully-proof your child -- and keep him from becoming a bully.
- Model compassionate, respectful relationships from the time your child is small. The best way to keep children from being bullied is to make sure they have high self esteem and strong relationships at home. Children learn both sides of every relationship, and they can act either one. If you spank, your child will learn that physical violence is the way to respond to interpersonal problems. If your discipline methods use power over your child, he will learn to use power over others, or to let others use power over him. Don't worry, you don't need that kind of discipline.
- Stay connected to your child through thick and thin. Lonely kids are more likely to be bullied, and to let themselves be bullied. Remember, parenting is 90% connection -- a close relationship with your child -- and only 10% guidance. The guidance won't stick unless you have the relationship to support it, and will just drive your child away. Keep those lines of communication open, no matter what.
- Model confident behavior with other people. If you tend to back down easily so you don't make a scene, but then later feel pushed-around, it's time to change that. Your child is learning from watching you. Experiment with finding ways to assert your own needs or rights while maintaining respect for the other person. It's also important not to put yourself or your child down, because you're teaching her to follow in your footsteps.
- Directly teach your child respectful self-assertion. Give him words to stick up for himself early on:
"It's my turn now."
"I want a turn now."
"Hey, stop that."
"Hands off my body."
"It's not okay to hurt."
"I don't like being called that. I want you to call me by my name."
- Teach your child basic social skills. Kids who are outsiders are more likely to be bullied. Bullies prey on children whom they perceive to be vulnerable, including needy children who are so desperate for peer acceptance that they continue to hang around a group of peers even when one of the group leaders begins to mistreat them. Role play with your child how to join a game at the playground, introduce themselves to another child at a party, or initiate a playdate. Kids who are successful in joining groups of kids usually observe first, and find a way to fit into the group, rather than just barging in. Make games out of social skills and practice at home.
- Teach your child basic bully avoidance. Bullies operate where adults aren't present, so your child should avoid unsupervised hallways, bathrooms, and areas of the playground. Sitting in the front of the school bus, standing in the front of the line, and sitting at a lunch table near the cafeteria chaperones are all good strategies for bully avoidance.
- Teach your child that there is no shame in being frightened by a bully, in walking away, or in telling an adult and asking for help. Bullying situations can escalate, and saving face is less important than saving their life.
- Coach your child to handle teasing and bullying by role playing. Research shows that bullies begin with verbal harassment. How the "victim" responds to the first verbal aggression determines whether the bully continues to target this particular child. If the aggression gives the bully what he's looking for -- a feeling of power from successfully pushing the other child's buttons -- the aggression will generally escalate. It's imperative to discuss this issue with your child BEFORE he is subject to bullying, so he can stand up for himself successfully when a bully first "tests" him.
Roleplay with your child how he can stand up to a bully. Point out to your child that the bully wants to provoke a response that makes him feel powerful, so showing emotion and fighting back are exactly what the bully feeds off. Explain that while he can't control the bully, he can always control his own response. So in every interaction, how he responds will either inflame the situation or defuse it.
Your child needs to avoid getting "hooked" no matter how mad the bully makes him.
The best strategy is always to maintain one's own dignity, and to let the "bully" maintain his dignity, in other words, not to attack or demean the other person. To do this, simply say:
"You know, I’m just going to ignore that comment."
"I think I have something else to do right now."
"No thank you."
Then, just walk away.
Teach your child to count to ten to stay calm, look the bully in the eye, and say one of these things. Practice until your child has a strong, self-assured tone.
- Assert yourself. Teach your child to face the bully by standing tall and using a strong voice. Your child should name the bullying behavior and tell the aggressor to stop: “That’s teasing. Stop it.” or “Stop making fun of me. It’s mean.”
- Question the response. Ann Bishop, who teaches violence prevention, tells her students to respond to an insult with a non-defensive question: “Why would you say that?” or “Why would you want to tell me I am dumb (or fat) and hurt my feelings?”
- Use “I want.” Communication experts suggest teaching your child to address the bully beginning with “I want” and say firmly what he wants changed: “I want you to leave me alone.” or “I want you to stop teasing me.”
- Agree with the teaser. Consider helping your child create a statement agreeing with her teaser. Teaser: “You’re dumb.” Child: “Yeah, but I’m good at it.” or Teaser: “Hey, four eyes.” Child: “You’re right, my eyesight is poor.”
- Ignore it. Bullies love it when their teasing upsets their victims, so help your child find a way to not let his tormentor get to him. Fifth graders offer these kid-tested ways to ignore teasers: “Pretend they’re invisible,” “Walk away without looking at them,” “Quickly look at something else and laugh,” and “Look completely uninterested.”
- Make Fun of the Teasing. Fred Frankel, author of Good Friends Are Hard to Find suggests victims answer every tease with a reply, but not tease back. The teasing often stops, Frankel says; because the child lets the tormentor know he’s not going to let the teasing get to him (even if it does). Suppose the teaser says, “You’re stupid.” The child says a rehearsed comeback such as:“Really?” Other comebacks could be: “So?,” “You don’t say,” “And your point is?,” or “Thanks for telling me.”
- Teach kids to intervene to prevent bullying. Bullying expert Michele Borba says that when bystanders -- kids who are nearby -- intervene correctly, studies find they can cut bullying more than half the time and within 10 seconds.
The best interventions:
Partner with the victim and remove her from danger - Go stand with the victim physically, turn the victim away from the bully and walk her off in the other direction -- towards adult help. Say "You look upset" or "I've been looking for you" or "The teacher sent me to find you."
Get help - Bullies love an audience. Get the other kids on your side by waving them over to you, yelling, "We need your help." Confront the bully: "You're being mean." Then walk away: "C'mon, let's go!"
If you're at all worried about safety, dial 911 or shout for a teacher.
Parents often ask me for good books to read that address bullying. Here are some suggestion both for you and your child.
Editor's Note: Aha! Parenting helps parents create a more peaceful home and happy, responsible, considerate kids! It's founder, Dr. Laura Markham is a Clinical Psychologist, who earned her PhD from Columbia University. But she's also a mom, who knows how to translatesproven science into the practical solutions. She's also the author of the book Peaceful Parent, Happy Kids: How to Stop Yelling and Start Connecting.
Dr. Laura also serves as a parenting expert for Mothering.com, Psychology Today, The Natural Parent Magazine, Pregnancy.org, Girlie Girl Army, SheKnows.com, and several other websites.